Unless you are going for a grid tie system, your solar power system is going to require a controller in order to manage the flow of electricity (the current) into and out of the battery.
Batteries must not be overcharged by the solar array as this will damage, and eventually destroy the battery pack. Likewise, batteries must not be allowed to discharge completely as this will quite rapidly destroy the battery pack.
There are a few instances where home solar power systems do not require a controller. An example of this is small ‘battery top-up’ solar panel that is used to keep a car battery in peak condition when the car is not being used. These solar panels are too small to damage the battery when the battery is fully charged.
In the majority of instances, however, a solar power system will require a controller in order to manage the charge and discharge of the battery and keep the battery pack in good condition.
The electricity generated by a solar power system is a low voltage direct current (DC). Mains electricity is a high voltage alternating current (AC).
If you are planning to run mains-powered equipment from your solar power system, you will need an inverter to convert the current from DC to AC and step the voltage up to mains voltage levels.
Useful information solar panel:
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